Diseases FROM Digestive System
Jaundice: Liver is affected, skin and eyes turn yellow due to the deposit of bile pigments.
Vomiting: It is the ejection of stomach contents through the mouth and this reflex action is controlled by the vomit centre in the medulla.
Diarrhoea: The abnormal frequency of bowel movement and increased liquidity of the faecaldischarge is known as diarrhoea. It reduces the absorption of food.
Constipation: The faecesare retained within the rectum as the bowel movements occur irregularly.
Indigestion: Food is not properly digestedleading to a feeling of fullness. Causes are inadequate enzyme secretion, anxiety, food poisoning, over eating, and spicyfood.
Diseases from Body Fluids and Circulation
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) : Blood pressure > (120/80). If repeated checks of blood pressure of an individual is 140/90 (140 over 90) or higher, it shows hypertension. Leads to heart diseases and also affects vital organs like brain and kidney. (2011)
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or atherosclerosis : It is caused by deposits of calcium, fat, cholesterol and fibrous tissues, which makes the lumen of arteries narrower thus disturbing the blood flow.
Angina or Angina pectoris : Acute chest pain appears when no enough oxygen is reaching the heart muscle. Common among the middle-aged and elderly. Occurs due to conditions that affect the blood flow.
Heart Failure OR congestive heart failure : State of heart when it is not pumping blood effectively enough to meet the needs of the body. Congestion of the lungs is one of the main symptoms of this disease.
Cardiac arrest-Heart stops beating
Heart attack : Heart muscle is suddenly damaged by an inadequate blood supply.
Diseases from Excretory Products and Their Elimination
Hemodialysis : Malfunctioning of kidneys leads to accumulation of urea in blood (uremia), which may lead kidney failure. In such patients, urea can be removed by a process called hemodialysis.
Blood → drained from a convenient artery → pumped into a dialyzing unit (added anticoagulant like heparin).
The passage of molecules from dialyzing unit based on concentration gradient (nitrogenous waste come in outer fluid).
The cleared blood is pumped back to the body through a vein after adding anti-heparin to it.
Kidney transplantation ultimately used for acute renal failures (kidney failure). A functioning kidney is used from a donor, preferably a close relative, to minimize graft rejection.
Renal calculi : Stone or insoluble mass of crystallised salts (oxalates, etc.) formed within the kidney.
Glomerulonephritis : Inflammation of glomeruli of kidney.
Uremia : presence of urea in blood
Heamaturia : presence of blood cells in urine
Ketonuria : presence of high ketonebodies in urine
Glycosuria : presence of glucose in urine
Proteinuria : presence of high protein level in urine
Diseases from Locomotion and Movement
Myasthenia gravis : Auto immune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction leading tofatigue, weakening and paralysis of skeletal muscle.
Muscular dystrophy: Progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle mostly due to genetic disorder.
Tetany : Rapid spasms (wild contractions) in muscle due to low Ca++ in body fluid.
Arthritis : This is characterized by Inflammation of joints.
Osteoporosis : This is an age-related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass and increased chances of fractures.
Decreased levels of estrogen is a common cause of osteoporosis.
Gout : Inflammation of joints due to accumulation of uric acid crystals.
Diseases from Chemical Coordination and Integration
Dwarfism : Hyposecretion of Growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland during childhood
Gigantism : Hypersecretion of Growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland before adolescence
Acromegaly : Hyperactivity of Growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland due to tumour.
Diabetes incipidus : Hyposecretionof vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone) from posterior pituitary
Cretinism : Deficiency of thyroid hormone during infancy. Slow body growth and mental development, low heart rate etc.
Myxoedema : Deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults. Puffy appearance, lack of alertness, low body temperature, heart rate
Goitre : Deficiency of iodine in diet. Enlargement of thyroid gland.
Hashimoto’s disease : Auto immune disease . Thyroid gland is destroyed.
Grave’s disease : caused due to hyperthyroidism. Protrusion of eye balls, loss of weight, rise in body temperature, rapid heart beat etc.
Parathyroid tetany : Due to hypoparathyroidism. Lowering of blood calcium level. Sustained contraction of muscles of larynx, face, hands and feet.
Cushing’s syndrome : Hyperactivity of adrenal cortex resulting in hyper secretion of cortisols. Hyperglycemia, high sodium ion in plasma.
Addison’s disease : Deficiency of mineralocorticoids secreted by adrenal cortex. Hypoglycemia and weight loss.